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DELAWARE
INCORPORATION SERVICES

SERIES LLC’S
FOR FRACTIONAL OWNERSHIP

 

SERIES LLC’S FOR FRACTIONAL OWNERSHIP
ALSO KNOWN AS “CELL LLC” OR “SERIAL LLC”

Delaware Series LLC (also known as a "Cell LLC" or "Serial LLC") is a unique Delaware LLC with unlimited asset segregation potential. Under one LLC you can set up numerous "series" owning separate assets.

A Series LLC is a special form of a Limited liability company that provides liability protection across multiple "series" each of which is theoretically protected from liabilities arising from the other series.

A Series LLC has been described as a master LLC that has separate divisions, which is similar to an S corporation with Q-subs.

According to the statute, 6 Del. C. Section 18-215, "the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to a particular series shall be enforceable against the assets of such series only, and not against the assets of the company generally or any other series thereof."

Segregating “dangerous” assets and businesses into separate entities away from other assets, especially “safe” assets, is always a good idea from an asset protection point of view. For example, an individual who owns a gas station and a rental home should not own both within the same entity. Further, an individual with a large amount of liquid assets (cash, securities, etc.) to protect should not hold those assets in the same entity as a business.

Best practices would dictate that every distinct business or major business asset be segregated into a different limited liability entity. In an ideal situation, someone with 25 rental properties would have 25 separate LLCs, one for each property. However, this is not always practical because of administrative costs and government fees that must be paid for each LLC.

What can such a business owner do to protect his assets from liabilities unrelated to those assets in a cost-effective way?

Enter the series LLC.


DELAWARE LLC ACT
The LLC acts of Delaware, Iowa and Oklahoma provide for the creation of separate protected “cells” (‘series’) within one limited liability “container” (the series LLC) without the need to create separate entities, thus avoiding the inefficiencies associated with multiple related entities.

The Delaware LLC Act is the LLC act most often used for series LLC’s and is the act used for discussion purposes in this report.

The Delaware LLC Act provides that the liabilities of a particular series are enforceable only against the assets of that series. The Act also provides that classes or groups of members can be established, having whatever rights the LLC agreement says they have.

The combination of these two provisions allows a series to function in many ways as a separate entity for practical purposes. The series LLC concept is similar in function to segregated portfolio companies and protected cell companies designed for the mutual fund and captive insurance industries in a number of offshore and onshore jurisdictions.

The Act allows an LLC agreement to designate series of members, managers or LLC interests that have separate rights and duties with respect to specific LLC property or obligations. So, each series can be tied to specific assets and can also have different members and managers.

EACH SERIES CAN HAVE ITS OWN BUSINESS PURPOSES
A series can be terminated without affecting the other series of the LLC. A series can make distributions to its own members without regard to the financial condition of the other series.

Most importantly, the Act provides that debts, liabilities and obligations incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to a particular series are enforceable against that series only, and not against the assets of the LLC generally or any other series of the LLC.

EACH SERIES IS TREATED SEPARATELY
In order to obtain inter-series liability protection, each series must be treated separately and the public must be put on notice of the liability limitation by the inclusion of the series limitations in the LLC’s Certificate of Formation filed with the Delaware Secretary of State.

Records must be kept for each series and the assets of each series must be held and accounted for separately. The separate holding and accounting required may be in the LLC’s records, so long as separate and distinct records are maintained for each series.

However, the safest practice would be to segregate and separately hold series assets titled, to the extent possible, in the name of each series (e.g., “XYZ LLC, Series A”).

In many cases, the members of each series of an LLC will be identical. In such cases, it is fairly certain that the series LLC as a whole will be treated as a single tax entity for federal tax purposes. On the other hand, if the series of an LLC have the same members, or identical or similar membership rights, or similar business purposes, each series may be treated as a separate LLC for income tax purposes, where and when applicable only. Please check our web site for LLC tax exemptions.

In both cases, however, there should be only one filing with a state’s secretary of state for the LLC (rather than for the individual series). Furthermore, in most cases, there should be only one state franchise (or similar) tax filing.

ADDING AND DELETING SERIES PROCEDURE
The procedure for adding and deleting series is uncomplicated. Additional series can be added by simply amending the Series' “limited liability company agreement” (equivalent to an operating agreement for other LLCs).

Under Delaware law, any particular series may be dissolved by 2/3 approval of the ownership interests, or a simple majority if provided for in the operating agreement.

This method of liability segregation was first called the "Delaware Series LLC" because it was first approved in Delaware. As of April 2005, Iowa and Oklahoma already had passed similar acts. Illinois followed suit in August of 2005. Tennessee (Tenn. Code Ann. §48-249-309) and Utah passed legislation effective in 2006. Wisconsin passed a stripped down version of the series LLC legislation. (Wis. Stat. Ann. §183.0504).

HOW TO MINIMIZE CHANCES OF LIABILITY WITHIN THE LLC SERIES
RECOMMENDATIONS

To minimize the chances of one series being held liable for another’s liabilities, the owners of a Delaware Series LLC should do the following:

Keep the assets and operations of each series separate from the other series.
Each asset should be owned solely by one series. In other words, two or more series should not be co-owners of the same property.
Make sure each series is adequately capitalized.
Have each series file a fictitious business name statement in each county where it owns property.
Each series should have its own name and the filing should emphasize the ownership of that series, for example, “Lissabon LLC, Mountain Series only”. This is to put creditors on notice.
All contracts, deeds, notes, etc. should be signed in the name of the series. Again, use something like “Lissabon LLC, Mountain Series only”.
A separate bank account should be maintained for each series.
Any loans between series should be properly documented.
Any transactions between series should be conducted in an arms’-length manner at fair market prices using appraisals.

PRACTICAL USES OF THE SERIES LLC
The most obvious use for the series LLC is to hold multiple parcels of real property in liability-segregated cells. Owners of small commercial or residential properties may find the series LLC particularly appealing. This is especially true in states with high minimum franchise taxes. Forming and maintaining a number of separate LLC’s may cost several thousand dollars in the year of formation and several thousand dollars each subsequent year. Using a series LLC with each property held by a separate series may save several thousand dollars in startup costs and another several thousand dollars a year in ongoing administrative and state tax costs.

Another use for the series LLC is to facilitate an equity compensation program in a business with multiple divisions. With each division segregated into a separate series, the LLC can give the key employees of each series some sort of equity interest tied to that series only rather than equity interests in the entity as a whole. This rewards employees at productive divisions and protects them from the potential downside of other divisions.

Another use for the series LLC is to facilitate the combination of business operations of distinct businesses. For example, rather than undertaking a traditional merger, two companies wishing to join forces might form a series LLC, with each company contributing its assets to a separate series, or with the owners of each company contributing their ownership interests to a separate series. The LLC agreement and series agreements could be drafted to determine exactly which rights and responsibilities are shared and which are maintained separately. The series LLC provides a unique and very flexible framework for this sort of business combination.

Finally, yet another use for the series LLC is to facilitate joint ownership of aircraft and watercraft. The flexibility in fashioning series interests can be helpful in customizing a joint ownership arrangement. While ownership of a boat by a series LLC should be relatively straightforward, FAA rules about fractional ownership of aircraft and entity ownership and operation of aircraft are quite complex. Expert aviation law advice and expert series LLC advice are crucial for anyone considering using a series LLC to own an aircraft.

DELAWARE SERIES LLC PROVISIONS

The provisions of Delaware Law that authorize the Series LLC

SERIES LLC TERMS
SERIES LLC – “CELL LLC”

A form of LLC allowed by the statutes of only a few jurisdictions (most popularly Delaware) that allow membership interests to be divided into categories or "cells" with liability for particular actions of the LLC theoretically limited to the capital contributed to the particular series in which the operations of the LLC occurred.

SERIES LLC BENEFITS
(A) The Series LLC permits separate liability-insulated divisions within a single entity.
(B) A Series LLC could be used as a holding company owning intangible assets, or tangible assets such as real estate, or as an operating company conducting different lines of business.
(C) The Series LLC reduces costs associated with separate entity formation and maintenance.
(D) May protect assets held by one series from judgments against another series
Often used to hold real estate or intangible assets

DELAWARE SERIES LLC PROVISIONS
§ 18-215. Series of members, managers or limited liability company interests.

(a) A limited liability company agreement may establish or provide for the establishment of 1 or more designated series of members, managers or limited liability company interests having separate rights, powers or duties with respect to specified property or obligations of the limited liability company or profits and losses associated with specified property or obligations, and any such series may have a separate business purpose or investment objective.

(b) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary set forth in this chapter or under other applicable law, in the event that a limited liability company agreement establishes or provides for the establishment of 1 or more series, and if separate and distinct records are maintained for any such series and the assets associated with any such series are held in such separate and distinct records (directly or indirectly, including through a nominee or otherwise) and accounted for in such separate and distinct records separately from the other assets of the limited liability company, or any other series thereof, and if the limited liability company agreement so provides, and if notice of the limitation on liabilities of a series as referenced in this subsection is set forth in the certificate of formation of the limited liability company, then the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to a particular series shall be enforceable against the assets of such series only, and not against the assets of the limited liability company generally or any other series thereof, and, unless otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, none of the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to the limited liability company generally or any other series thereof shall be enforceable against the assets of such series. Notice in a certificate of formation of the limitation on liabilities of a series as referenced in this subsection shall be sufficient for all purposes of this subsection whether or not the limited liability company has established any series when such notice is included in the certificate of formation, and there shall be no requirement that any specific series of the limited liability company be referenced in such notice. The fact that a certificate of formation that contains the foregoing notice of the limitation on liabilities of a series is on file in the office of the Secretary of State shall constitute notice of such limitation on liabilities of a series.

(c) Notwithstanding § 18-303(a) of this title, under a limited liability company agreement or under another agreement, a member or manager may agree to be obligated personally for any or all of the debts, obligations and liabilities of one or more series.

(d) A limited liability company agreement may provide for classes or groups of members or managers associated with a series having such relative rights, powers and duties as the limited liability company agreement may provide, and may make provision for the future creation in the manner provided in the limited liability company agreement of additional classes or groups of members or managers associated with the series having such relative rights, powers and duties as may from time to time be established, including rights, powers and duties senior to existing classes and groups of members or managers associated with the series. A limited liability company agreement may provide for the taking of an action, including the amendment of the limited liability company agreement, without the vote or approval of any member or manager or class or group of members or managers, including an action to create under the provisions of the limited liability company agreement a class or group of the series of limited liability company interests that was not previously outstanding. A limited liability company agreement may provide that any member or class or group of members associated with a series shall have no voting rights.

(e) A limited liability company agreement may grant to all or certain identified members or managers or a specified class or group of the members or managers associated with a series the right to vote separately or with all or any class or group of the members or managers associated with the series, on any matter. Voting by members or managers associated with a series may be on a per capita, number, financial interest, class, group or any other basis.

(f) Unless otherwise provided in a limited liability company agreement, the management of a series shall be vested in the members associated with such series in proportion to the then current percentage or other interest of members in the profits of the series owned by all of the members associated with such series, the decision of members owning more than 50 percent of the said percentage or other interest in the profits controlling; provided, however, that if a limited liability company agreement provides for the management of the series, in whole or in part, by a manager, the management of the series, to the extent so provided, shall be vested in the manager who shall be chosen in the manner provided in the limited liability company agreement. The manager of the series shall also hold the offices and have the responsibilities accorded to the manager as set forth in a limited liability company agreement. A series may have more than 1 manager. Subject to § 18-602 of this title, a manager shall cease to be a manager with respect to a series as provided in a limited liability company agreement. Except as otherwise provided in a limited liability company agreement, any event under this chapter or in a limited liability company agreement that causes a manager to cease to be a manager with respect to a series shall not, in itself, cause such manager to cease to be a manager of the limited liability company or with respect to any other series thereof.

(g) Notwithstanding § 18-606 of this title, but subject to subsections (h) and (k) of this section, and unless otherwise provided in a limited liability company agreement, at the time a member associated with a series that has been established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section becomes entitled to receive a distribution with respect to such series, the member has the status of, and is entitled to all remedies available to, a creditor of the series, with respect to the distribution. A limited liability company agreement may provide for the establishment of a record date with respect to allocations and distributions with respect to a series.

(h) Notwithstanding § 18-607(a) of this title, a limited liability company may make a distribution with respect to a series that has been established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. A limited liability company shall not make a distribution with respect to a series that has been established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section to a member to the extent that at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, all liabilities of such series, other than liabilities to members on account of their limited liability company interests with respect to such series and liabilities for which the recourse of creditors is limited to specified property of such series, exceed the fair value of the assets associated with such series, except that the fair value of property of the series that is subject to a liability for which the recourse of creditors is limited shall be included in the assets associated with such series only to the extent that the fair value of that property exceeds that liability. For purposes of the immediately preceding sentence, the term "distribution" shall not include amounts constituting reasonable compensation for present or past services or reasonable payments made in the ordinary course of business pursuant to a bona fide retirement plan or other benefits program. A member who receives a distribution in violation of this subsection, and who knew at the time of the distribution that the distribution violated this subsection, shall be liable to a series for the amount of the distribution. A member who receives a distribution in violation of this subsection, and who did not know at the time of the distribution that the distribution violated this subsection, shall not be liable for the amount of the distribution. Subject to § 18-607(c) of this title, which shall apply to any distribution made with respect to a series under this subsection, this subsection shall not affect any obligation or liability of a member under an agreement or other applicable law for the amount of a distribution.

(i) Unless otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, a member shall cease to be associated with a series and to have the power to exercise any rights or powers of a member with respect to such series upon the assignment of all of the member's limited liability company interest with respect to such series. Except as otherwise provided in a limited liability company agreement, any event under this chapter or a limited liability company agreement that causes a member to cease to be associated with a series shall not, in itself, cause such member to cease to be associated with any other series or terminate the continued membership of a member in the limited liability company or cause the termination of the series, regardless of whether such member was the last remaining member associated with such series.

(j) Subject to § 18-801 of this title, except to the extent otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, a series may be terminated and its affairs wound up without causing the dissolution of the limited liability company. The termination of a series established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section shall not affect the limitation on liabilities of such series provided by subsection (b) of this section. A series is terminated and its affairs shall be wound up upon the dissolution of the limited liability company under § 18-801 of this title or otherwise upon the first to occur of the following:
(1) At the time specified in the limited liability company agreement;
(2) Upon the happening of events specified in the limited liability company agreement;
(3) Unless otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, upon the affirmative vote or written consent of the members of the limited liability company associated with such series or, if there is more than 1 class or group of members associated with such series, then by each class or group of members associated with such series, in either case, by members associated with such series who own more than two-thirds of the then-current percentage or other interest in the profits of the series of the limited liability company owned by all of the members associated with such series or by the members in each class or group of such series, as appropriate; or
(4) The termination of such series under subsection (l) of this section.

(k) Notwithstanding § 18-803(a) of this title, unless otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, a manager associated with a series who has not wrongfully terminated the series or, if none, the members associated with the series or a person approved by the members associated with the series or, if there is more than 1 class or group of members associated with the series, then by each class or group of members associated with the series, in either case, by members who own more than 50 percent of the then current percentage or other interest in the profits of the series owned by all of the members associated with the series or by the members in each class or group associated with the series, as appropriate, may wind up the affairs of the series; but, if the series has been established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, the Court of Chancery, upon cause shown, may wind up the affairs of the series upon application of any member associated with the series, the member's personal representative or assignee, and in connection therewith, may appoint a liquidating trustee. The persons winding up the affairs of a series may, in the name of the limited liability company and for and on behalf of the limited liability company and such series, take all actions with respect to the series as are permitted under § 18-803(b) of this title. The persons winding up the affairs of a series shall provide for the claims and obligations of the series and distribute the assets of the series as provided in § 18-804 of this title, which section shall apply to the winding up and distribution of assets of a series. Actions taken in accordance with this subsection shall not affect the liability of members and shall not impose liability on a liquidating trustee.

(l) On application by or for a member or manager associated with a series established in accordance with subsection (b) of this section, the Court of Chancery may decree termination of such series whenever it is not reasonably practicable to carry on the business of the series in conformity with a limited liability company agreement.

(m) If a foreign limited liability company that is registering to do business in the State of Delaware in accordance with § 18-902 of this title is governed by a limited liability company agreement that establishes or provides for the establishment of designated series of members, managers or limited liability company interests having separate rights, powers or duties with respect to specified property or obligations of the foreign limited liability company or profits and losses associated with specified property or obligations, that fact shall be so stated on the application for registration as a foreign limited liability company. In addition, the foreign limited liability company shall state on such application whether the debts, liabilities and obligations incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to a particular series, if any, shall be enforceable against the assets of such series only, and not against the assets of the foreign limited liability company generally or any other series thereof, and, unless otherwise provided in the limited liability company agreement, none of the debts, liabilities, obligations and expenses incurred, contracted for or otherwise existing with respect to the foreign limited liability company generally or any other series thereof shall be enforceable against the assets of such series. (70 Del. Laws, c. 360, § 9; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 71 Del. Laws, c. 77, §§ 19-23; 71 Del. Laws, c. 341, §§ 9, 10; 72 Del. Laws, c. 389, §§ 14-18; 74 Del. Laws, c. 85, §§ 12, 13; 74 Del. Laws, c. 275, § 9.)


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